Tomlinson, E. R., Yousaf, O., Vittersø, A. D., & Jones, L. |2018 |Dispositional mindfulness and psychological health: a systematic review | Mindfulness | P. 1-21 |Doi:
Although mindfulness has gained more prominence in recent times as interest in it as a practice has steadily grown, systematic reviews in this area are scarce. As such the researchers of this study systematically reviewed the literature on dispositional mindfulness (DM) and psychological non-interventional, quantitative papers in English up to June 2016. They folllowed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. After conducting a literature search on PSYCinfo, PUBmed, Medline and Embase they found 93 papers that met the inclusion criteria.
From this review three major themes emerged:
DM appears to be inversely related to psychopathological symptoms such as depressive symptoms;
DM is associated with adaptive strategies and less rumination;
It is also associated with more sophisticated emotional processing and regulation.
For the researchers DM can enhance patient resilience and act as a buffer against the development of negative thinking patterns that predict psychological ill health. They surmise that while the research in this area has consistently shown a positive relationship between DM and psychological health. However, as a result of limitations in this field, for instance the use of inconsistent terminology and a research sample of
predominantly white males, such barriers should be overcome in future research in order to advance what is known in this area.
New research shows that mindfulness meditation app can reduce the body’s response to biological stress | Psychoneuroendocrinology | Story via ScienceDaily
A new study has found that one component of mindfulness interventions is particularly important for impacting stress biology. Acceptance, or learning how to be open and accepting of the way things are in each moment, is critical for the training’s stress reduction effects. The researchers offer the first scientific evidence that a brief mindfulness meditation mobile app that incorporates acceptance training reduces cortisol and systolic blood pressure in response to stress.
Mindfulness interventions, which train practitioners to monitor their present-moment experience with a lens of acceptance, are known to buffer stress reactivity. Little is known about the active mechanisms driving these effects. We theorize that acceptance is a critical emotion regulation mechanism underlying mindfulness stress reduction effects.
In this three-arm parallel trial, mindfulness components were dismantled into three structurally equivalent 15-lesson smartphone-based interventions: (1) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor + Accept), (2) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only), or (3) active control training (Coping control). 153 stressed adults (mean age = 32 years; 67% female; 53% white, 21.5% black, 21.5% Asian, 4% other race) were randomly assigned to complete one of three interventions. After the intervention, cortisol, blood pressure, and subjective stress reactivity were assessed using a modified Trier Social Stress Test.
As predicted, Monitor + Accept training reduced cortisol and systolic blood pressure reactivity compared to Monitor Only and control trainings. Participants in all three conditions reported moderate levels of subjective stress.
This study provides the first experimental evidence that brief smartphone mindfulness training can impact stress biology, and that acceptance training drives these effects. We discuss implications for basic and applied research in contemplative science, emotion regulation, stress and coping, health, and clinical interventions.
Perhaps teenagers are too cynical to benefit from mindfulness, say authors of latest school trial
In the UK, more and more children are learning mindfulness at school. The Mindfulness in Schools project claims that over 4000 of our teachers are now trained in the practice. However, some experts are concerned that the roll-out of mindfulness has raced ahead of the evidence base, which paints a mixed picture.
A research team led by Catherine Johnson at Flinders University has now reported in Behaviour Research and Therapy the results of their latest school trial, which included new features in the mindfulness intervention, such as parental involvement and better designed homework materials, intended to maximise the programme’s effectiveness. However, once again the mindfulness programme led to no observable benefits.
Mindfulness-based interventions are effective as curative and preventative approaches to psychological health. However, the mechanisms by which outcomes are secured from such interventions when delivered in the workplace, and to a stressed workforce, are not well understood | Mindfulness
The aim of the present study was to elicit and analyse accounts from past participants of a workplace mindfulness intervention in order to generate a preliminary model of how positive benefits appear to be secured.
In-depth, semi-structured interviews were completed with 21 employees of a higher education institution who had completed an eight-week intervention based on Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, adapted for the workplace. Interviews invited participants to recount their experiences of the intervention and its impact, if any, on their work life. Aspects of the interview data that pertained to intervention experience and positive benefits were analysed using a version of grounded theory, leading to the generation of a provisional model of how positive change occurred.
The model suggests that discrete, temporal experiences build on each other to generate multiple, positive benefits. As anticipated in mindfulness-based interventions, enhanced attentional capacity was important, but our provisional model also suggests that resonance, self-care, detection of stress markers, perceiving choice, recovering self-agency and upward spiralling may be central mechanisms that lead to positive outcomes. Understanding mechanisms of change may help support participant engagement and trust in work-based mindfulness programmes, and enhance participants’ ability to apply mindfulness in their work life.
A growing body of literature attests to the existence of therapist effects with little explanation of this phenomenon. This study therefore investigated the role of resilience and mindfulness as factors related to practitioner wellbeing and associated effective practice | Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
Data comprised practitioners (n = 37) and their patient outcome data (n = 4980) conducted within a stepped care model of service delivery. Analyses employed benchmarking and multilevel modeling to identify more and less effective practitioners via yoking of therapist factors and nested patient outcomes. A therapist effect of 6.7 % was identified based on patient depression (PHQ-9) outcome scores.
More effective practitioners compared to less effective practitioners displayed significantly higher levels of mindfulness as well as resilience and mindfulness combined. Implications for policy, research and practice are discussed.
The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life | Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life.
According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome).
A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.
Mindfulness holds great promise, but can it really improve children’s thinking and wellbeing? And if so, does that help children to behave well in class and do better in school? | by Jennifer Hanratty for The Mental Elf Blog
Maynard and colleagues (2017) carefully reviewed the evidence for MBIs for children in schools. They did a very thorough search of databases, relevant websites and conference records and contacted experts. They found 65 relevant studies of MBIs. Out of all the evidence found, 44 studies were well designed; in that the researchers assigned children or whole classes to either get MBI or not. Those who didn’t get MBI were put on a waiting list or just continued with their normal school activities. This means that the two groups (“got MBI”, “didn’t get MBI”) can be compared to see what effect MBIs have independent of any changes that would happen anyway without MBI. This is especially important for children because they will naturally develop thinking skills and social skills as they get older and also learn and practice these skills at school.
The author’s conclusions are slightly different to my own. They conclude that:
There is some indication that MBIs can improve cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes, but no support for improvement in behavior or academic achievement.
My interpretation of the evidence presented is that, as the authors say, there is a small effect of MBIs on helping children to feel good and improve their thinking skills. However, based on the forest plots it seems, to me at least, that there may well be a small positive effect on behaviour and academics too, but these results were not statistically significant and studies were of low quality. Without more and better quality studies we can’t say for sure whether or not MBIs might help children behave better or do better in school tests.